How to run CHKDSK on Windows 10/11

Hard disks can cause problems. Physical damage to a hard disk is often unsustainable but a disk can have software problems and can be repaired. You may need to use several tools to fix them, depending on the problem but before you can fix a problem, you need to test it.



Windows 10 comes with a lot of built-in monitoring tools to identify what might be wrong with software or hardware. For hard drives, Windows has the Check Disk Tool (CHKDSK). This is a command line tool that you can use to scan hard format for errors, and to fix them.

The device can be used on both indoor and outdoor driver. If you want to run the tool on your Windows driver, you need to run it from outside Windows ie you need to access Command Prompt from outside Windows through the troubleshoot menu.

As you run CHKDSK

To run the CHKDSK tool, you must have administrative rights on your system. You should also know the parameters for this command. The parameters determine what the device will do.

Basic concordance

chkdsk [Drive] /Switch


chkdsk D: /r

A standard command looks like this:

chkdsk D: /f /r /x

The / f, / r and / x are all switches and tell the machine what to do.

  • /f tells the machine to correct any errors it finds.
  • /r telling the machine to look for a bad part.
  • /x asking the device to remove the driver before starting the scan process.

In addition to these three switches, there are also the following switches;

  • /i Doing a disk scan is quick and not as deep. Can only be used with NTFS drivers.
  • /perf enabling the device more system resources allowing it to operate faster
  • /scan it will not remove the drive before you check it (cannot be used with the / x version for obvious reasons)
  • /v it will list the name and path of each file in the drive while running the check

There are a few more switches you can use with this tool and Microsoft has detailed documentation for them. In general, this tool does not delete your data but may cause your system to slow down while it is running.


A CHKDSK tool can fix driver errors but it can also fix certain issues. You can try other disk repair tools instead. At times, software problems can render driving useless and you may have to buy a new one.

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